Help for people from the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA)
If you are from the European Union (EU) or the European Economic Area (EEA), you may be able to claim certain benefits or get help from the council if you become homeless, but your rights depend on how long you have been here and whether or not you are working.
What are my rights when I first arrive?
All EEA/EU nationals have an automatic right to live in the UK for three months after their arrival.
Unless you are working during these three months, you will not be eligible to get help from the council with housing or claim benefits. It is a good idea to have enough money to see you through this period and try to arrange to stay with friends or family for a short time.
It can be very difficult to get into a homeless hostel or night-shelter. This is because you usually need to be able to claim housing benefit to pay for your hostel space and you are not entitled to housing benefit unless you are working. During the winter months some churches, charities and councils provide free cold weather shelters where you might be able to stay at night.
Contact Streetlink if you find yourself with nowhere to stay at night. They will be able to put you in contact with help in your area. Go to their website or phone them on 0300 500 0914.
If you are working during the first three months, then the rules for ‘workers’ apply (see below).
EU and EEA workers and their family members who are ‘habitually resident’ (or exempt from the habitual residence test), have the right to:
Am I classed as a ‘worker’?
You have worker status if you are an EU or EEA national and are working full-time or part-time. You can be employed under a permanent or temporary contract.
It is not usually important what type of work you do or who your employer is.
If you have worker status and you stop working, you might keep your status if you are:
- unemployed and registered with Jobcentre Plus
- are temporarily unable to work because of sickness or an accident
- were in work but are now in vocational training (although if they have voluntarily given up their job to do vocational training, the course must be related to their former job to qualify)
- are unable to work due to pregnancy or childbirth as long as there is an intention to return to work within a ‘reasonable period’ of giving birth. In most cases, 52 weeks will be used as a basis for considering a reasonable period.
If you are from Croatia, the rules are different. You will normally only have worker status if you are employed. If you lose your job (or stop working for other reasons) within the first 12 months of working in the UK, you will stop being classed as a worker. This will be the case even if:
- you are looking for a job
- you have lost your job through no fault of your own, or
- you lost your job because you are ill.
There are some exceptions to this rule, however, so it always best to talk to an adviser if you stop working within the first 12 months. See Gov.UK Working in the UK as a Croatian national.
What if I’m self-employed?
If you are registered to pay tax and national insurance as a self-employed person:
- you can apply for social housing, make a homelessness application and/or apply for welfare benefits
- if you are temporarily unable to work because of sickness or an accident then you continue to have the same rights.
The rules are the same if you are a Croatian national and are self-employed.
People from the EEA and EU whose only right to reside in the UK is as a jobseeker are no longer eligible for assistance if they become homeless, can no longer apply for social housing and are not entitled to housing benefit. So, if you have recently arrived in the UK and are looking for work, you must find and pay for your own housing.
If you claimed housing benefit before the 1st April 2014, your entitlement to housing benefit will continue in some circumstances.
You may be able to claim housing benefit once you are in work if you are on a low income.
If you are a Croatian jobseeker who has not yet worked in the UK you are not eligible to apply for social housing, claim housing benefit or get help if you become homeless.
Becoming permanently resident
EU and EEA citizens who have had a right to reside (of any type) in the UK for five years automatically get the right to permanent residence. Permanent residence means that you are eligible to apply for social housing and can get help from the council if you become homeless.
Some people get a right of permanent residence before five years:
- if you had to stop working because of an accident or illness that means you can no longer work, the five-year qualifying period drops to two years
- if you had to stop working because of an accident or illness that was work-related, you get a right of permanent residence immediately
- if you reach retirement age (or take early retirement) while you are in the UK, you can become a permanent resident if:
-you have worked or been self-employed for at least 12 months before reaching pension age, and
-you have lived in the UK for at least three years.
If you have never worked in the UK then you do not qualify to become a permanent resident.
The rights listed above also apply to the family members of all EU/EEA nationals. People who are classed as family members include:
- a husband, wife or civil partner
- a child who is under 21 or is dependent on you
- dependent relatives, which could include unmarried partners, although special rules apply in some circumstances.
Former partners, regardless of their immigration status, will retain these rights if they are responsible for children who are under 18 and remain in education in the UK.
You might be asked to prove that a relationship is real. If you are making a homelessness application or claiming housing benefit you should take along any documents that prove your relationship. This might include passports, birth, adoption or marriage certificates.
Where can I get more help?
Shelter Cymru cannot house you but you can call Shelter Cymru’s expert housing advice helpline on 0345 075 5005 or request email advice. We may be able to help you find a solicitor in your area if you need one.
You can also visit the Housing Rights Information website or The European Commission’s Your Europe website, which provides help and advice for European citizens on a variety of issues, including work and travel.
Citizens Advice has advice centres around the country. They can help with lots of different problems, including benefits and debt. Their services are free.
The Trades Union Congress (Tel: 020 7636 4030) provides information about employees’ rights and has produced some useful leaflets, which have been translated into a variety of languages, including : Working in the UK: your rights
EU and EEA jargon
Here is a simple guide to some of the terms used when talking about European countries, the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EAA).
The two countries that joined the EU in January 2007 are Bulgaria and Romania and they are often called the ‘A2 nations’.
Citizens of the A2 countries previously had restrictions on their rights to work, claim benefits and access social housing and homelessness assistance, but these restrictions ended on the 1st January 2014. Since that date A2 nationals have had the same rights as any other workers from the EU and EEA.
The eight countries that joined the EU in January 2004 are:
- Czech Republic
They are often called ‘A8′ nations.
A8 nationals previously had restrictions on their rights to work, claim benefits and get access to housing and were required to register under something called the Worker Registration Scheme (WRS). The WRS was closed on the 1 May 2011 and since that date A8 nationals have had the same rights as any other workers from the EU and EEA.
Cyprus and Malta also joined the EEA/EU in January 2004. Their citizens also have full EEA/EU rights.
This is a term for the newest countries to join the EU and EEA.
Croatia joined the EU on 1 July 2013 and is still within their accession period. Many Croatians are subject to restrictions in terms of working for an employer in the UK for the first 12 months and are likely to need a registration certificate from UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI) to do so, although there are no restrictions on self-employment. These restrictions will effect entitlement to housing and benefits. Once a Croatian national has been in employment for a continuous period of 12 months, they will have the same rights as other EEA workers.
European Union (EU)
The European Union was founded in 1992 and has 28 member states:
- Czech Republic
- Republic of Ireland
- United Kingdom
EU citizens can live, travel, work, and invest in other member states. However, there are currently some restrictions on the rights of citizens from Croatia.
European Economic Area (EEA)
The EEA began in 1994 and allowed participating countries to trade in the European Single Market without having to join the EU. There are 31 participating countries, which include the 28 EU member states plus:
Switzerland also has an agreement with the EEA, which gives her citizens the same right to trade in the European Single Market.
Worker authorisation scheme
Until the 31st December 2013, A2 nationals who wanted to work in the UK had to register with this scheme run by the Home Office to get an accession worker card. There were different schemes for different types of work. Since the 1st January 2014, these rules no longer apply and A2 nationals have the same rights as other EEA workers.
Worker registration scheme (WRS)
Prior to the 1st May 2011 A8 nationals working in the UK had to register with this scheme run by the Home Office for the first twelve months of work. The WRS was abolished on the 1st May 2011. Since that date, the UK government has not been able to treat A8 nationals any differently to other EEA nationals.